Posts tagged poisonous.
Poison Dart Frog
Poison dart frogs consist of the family Dendrobatidae and are native to the rainforests of South and Central America. They are known for their bright colours and toxic secretions, which have been used by indigenous cultures to create poisonous darts for hunting.
The conspicuous colorations and patterns of the frogs warns potential predators of their toxicity. It is hypothesised that the frogs gain their poisons from their diet, which can consist of ants, centipedes and mites. In captivity, frogs which are reared on diets without these alkaloid poisons have a significantly lower level of toxins.
Around 4 species are used by indigenous peoples to lace darts with deadly toxins. The frogs are carefully exposed to fire, which causes them to exude a poisonous fluid. The tips of arrows and darts are soaked in this fluid and will remain deadly for 2 years.
Strawberry poison frogs (Oophaga pumilio) of Costa Rica give their newborn tadpoles a built-in weapon against predators: alkaloids
According with Ralph Saporito of John Carroll University in Ohio and leader of a new study on the species, adult strawberry poison frogs get the chemicals from their diets of ants and mites, “which essentially makes the frogs unpalatable to many potential predators”.
The team already knew that strawberry poison frog mothers feed their babies unfertilized eggs. But their new research revealed the eggs are also spiked with alkaloids—the first time an animal has been found to pass on such chemical defenses to its offspring.
For their study, the researchers measured alkaloid content in strawberry poison frogs during different stages of development. In one group, tadpoles were reared and fed by their mothers, and a second group was reared by the researchers and fed with eggs from another species of frog not known to harbor alkaloids.
As the tadpoles from both groups developed, the team analyzed their alkaloid contents. The results were clear-cut: Tadpoles reared by mom contained alkaloids in most stages, whereas tadpoles from the second group showed no sign of these chemicals, according to the study, published November 12 in the journal Ecology.
With this research scientist provide experimental evidence that maternally derived alkaloids deter predation of tadpoles by a predatory arthropod.
Photography: Strawberry poison arrow frog (Oophaga pumilio) in by Paul Bertner
Poison Ocellate Octopus or Mototi Octopus (Octopus mototi) -
Although it looks similar to the Carribean Two Spot octopus, this little octopus is actually poisonous. It is a type of blue ring octopus. Found in the waters of Japan to Australia and the South Pacific. In the Rapa Islands, “mototi” means poisonous.
While resting or calm, it is a camouflaged yellow brown, and its ocelli are very faint. (From top to bottom) As it becomes more threatened, it begins to sport bright white body with dark brown stripes, and flashing its blue rings to warn the enemy of its poison. Sometimes it bears these color patterns while swimming or when it is exposed.
These octopus are very rare in their native waters. It is not yet categorized on the ICUN list.
is a colorful species of frog found in the forests of Madagascar. As you may of guessed by its bright coloration this frog is poisonous and uses its coloration as a warning signal. Sadly like most amphibians this species is in decline as habitat destruction and other factors have riddled their population.
* dart frogs, though they may be highly toxic in the wild, are not toxic in captivity. it’s their diet of ants that provide the components for their toxins, and in captivity they are fed fruit flies and pinhead crickets (so they have no dietary source from which to make toxins). - paxon
(by Robin “Evil Bob” A on Flickr)
(photo by pbertner on Flickr)
aka Amereega macero
Adults were found to be near small streams during the end of the dry season, and presumably move out into the general forest during wetter times of the year. Tadpoles are thought to be deposited in streams as opposed to standing water. Originally described from Manu National Park, Peru, A. macero is now known to occur some 240 km to the north-northeast, on the Rio Alto Purus, and the drainage system of the Ucayali…
(read more: http://www.dendrobates.org/macero.html)